The global challenges of climate change and environmental degradation required a worldwide response. Climate has an important place on the political agenda of the EU. Climate and environment are the most important tasks the current generation has to face. The concept of the New Green Deal is a part of the discussions about the necessary changes and redefinition of the directions and goals related to the development of the global economy actors.

The New Green Deal is a new EU climate strategy announced by the European Commission. On December 11, 2019, EC President Ursula von der Leyen asked the European Parliament to approve the New Green Deal, a plan for the EU and its citizens to achieve climate neutrality by 2050. Among other important timelines, the Commission has called for a 50% increase to the EU 2030 climate target, which currently calls for a 40% cut in greenhouse gas emissions and an increase in the use of renewable energy. The European Commission has approved the European Green Deal. For now, the most important EU climate policy strategy is the European Green Deal. The EU Green Deal is the EU’s first such a comprehensive strategy to protect the environment and counteracting climate change. It also aims to protect, preserve and enhance the EU’s natural capital and safeguard the health and well-being of citizens from risks and negative impacts linked to the environment.

The European Green Deal is a new strategy for growth that aims to transform the Union into a just and prosperous society living in a modern, resource-efficient and competitive economy that achieves zero net greenhouse gas emissions by 2050. This is to be the EU’s new holistic economic strategy with the main goal of achieving climate neutrality by 2050. This means that by mid-century, the EU economy is expected to emit only as much greenhouse gas as it can absorb (e.g., through forests or CO2 capture technology). According to New Green Deal goals, the economic growth is to be decoupled from the use of natural resources.

EC President Ursula von der Leyen assured that the joint goal of the European Commission and the European Investment Bank would be to mobilize funds of around EUR 100 billion for it between 2020 and 2027.

The New Green Deal is an integral part of the strategy developed by the current Commission to implement the UN 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development and the Sustainable Development Goals. Under the New Green Deal, the Commission will change the process of macroeconomic coordination to take account of the UN Sustainable Development Goals, to put sustainability and the well-being of citizens at the heart of the economic policy and to put sustainable development at the heart of the EU policy and action.

The EU Emissions Trading System (EU ETS) is the most important tool of the European Union’s climate policy. The New Green Deal implies the introduction of new measures to implement climate policy. New actions involve: the inclusion of new sectors in the EU ETS, involving the maritime sector, and updating of the existing reduction targets. The New Green Deal aims at transforming the EU economy for a sustainable future.

The European Green Deal is a strategy for transforming the EU economy for a sustainable future. Implementing the European Green Deal requires a set of policies that will bring about a profound transformation. These include: more ambitious EU climate targets for 2030 and 2050; delivering clean, affordable and secure energy; mobilizing industry for a clean, closed-loop economy; building and renovating in ways that save energy and resources; accelerating the transition to sustainable and intelligent mobility; from farm to table: creating a fair, healthy and environmentally-friendly food system; protecting and restoring ecosystems and biodiversity; and zero emissions for a non-toxic environment. In transforming the EU economy for a sustainable future, the strategy includes: promoting green financing and green investment and ensuring a just transition; greening national budgets and ensuring appropriate price signals; supporting research and boosting innovation; activating education and training; and fulfilling the green pledge: “Do No Harm”.

Analysis of the New Green Deal goals in relation to CT development and possible input from CT to these goals achievement

The CT is popularized in the EU through the Combined Transport Directive (Council Directive 92/106/EEC). The aforementioned Combined Transport Directive is supported by other EU policies, such as the Weights and Dimensions Directive (Directive (EU) 2015/719 amending Council Directive 96/53/EC), which provides for Member States to allow heavier intermodal loading units to be moved by road when used in combined transport operations. In addition, the EU also provides financial support for CT projects.

Transportation must undergo major changes to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by as much as 90%. The New Green Deal strategy emphasizes the importance of transportation by dedicating an item entitled Accelerating the Transition to Sustainable and Smart Mobility to the topic of transportation. It was also stressed that transport needs a strong impulse for development, as it is responsible for a quarter of EU greenhouse gas emissions and this value is still growing. Therefore, in order to achieve climate neutrality, transport emissions have to be reduced by as much as 90% (by 2050). All modes of transportation—road, rail, air, and water—will have to contribute. The document also indicates that intermodal transport needs strong support, which will positively influence the efficiency of the entire transport system. The priority will be to shift a significant proportion of transport carried out today by road (which accounts for 75% of all transport) to waterways and rail. In aviation, the Commission announces a new start for the Single European Sky.

The Commission is also considering the withdrawal of the current legislative proposal and presenting a new proposal to amend the Combined Transport Directive. The proposal for a Directive amending Directive 92/106/EEC on the establishment of common rules for certain types of combined transport of goods between the Member States COM(2017) 648.

The plan also includes, intelligent traffic management systems, which are made possible by digitalization. The automated and networked multimodal mobility will play an increasing role. The Commission envisages developing the EU’s transport system and infrastructure in such a way that the proposed solutions support new sustainable mobility services with the potential to reduce congestion and pollution, especially in cities. It will also contribute to the development of intelligent traffic management systems and mobility-as-a-service solutions through its funding instruments (such as the Connecting Europe Facility).

The Commission’s recommendations on transport prices are also relevant from a CT perspective. The Commission stated that the price of transportation must reflect its external costs (health and environmental ones were mentioned). According to the Commission, subsidies for fossil fuels should terminate—including for aviation fuels and maritime transport.

It is to be proposed that the emissions trading scheme can be extended to the maritime transport sector, and considered for road transport. The number of free emission permits issued to airlines is to be reduced. This is to be coordinated with “action at global level” in conjunction with global maritime and air transport organizations. The document also mentions the need to look at a system of road access charges.

One of the main recommendations related to this point of accelerating the transition to sustainable and intelligent mobility is to develop the production and introduction of alternative sustainable transport fuels. As part of these measures, the Commission envisages more charging points for electric cars and refueling of alternative fuels. Already by 2025, 13 million low-emission cars are expected to be on the road, for which about one million public charging stations are to be available, so that almost every family in the EU can travel by electric vehicle without worrying about where to charge their car.

The document also states that the level of pollution generated by transport, especially in cities, must be drastically reduced. Through a combination of measures, the Commission aims to tackle emissions and congestion in cities and improve public transport.

The Commission plans to introduce stricter air pollution standards for vehicles powered by combustion engines. The legislation on CO2 standards for cars and vans should be reviewed by June 2021 so that there are no longer any obstacles to carbon-free mobility from 2025. At the same time, the Commission is considering the inclusion of the road transport sector in the European emissions trading scheme as a complement to the current and future CO2 standards for vehicles. The action is also planned for the maritime sector, which will include regulating access to EU ports for the most polluting ships and obliging ships at dock to use shore-side electricity. The issues of improving air quality around airports by tackling aircraft emissions and airport operations were also raised.